NANO TEXT SIZE Shown above is the final Bible text at different magnifications though a special Electron Microscope.JERUSALEM NANO SIZE In 2015 Jerusalem Nano Bible received a nomination by The Guinness Book of World Records for ‘the smallest bible in the world’.SIZE COMPARISON One nanometer (nm) is one billionth, or 10 to the ninth power, of a meter. The comparative size is a marble to earth.ELECTRON MICROSCOPE The smallest object visible to an Optical microscope is only 200 nm. (Not to be confused with an Electron Microscope)STRAND OF HAIR 100,000 +/- NM WIDE A human hair is apx. 80,000-100,000 nanometers.ONE BIBLE LETTER SIZE 600 +/- NM WIDE To actually be able to read the Bible, you need an electron microscope to zoom into the text 1000x.UV WAVELENGTH 60 +/- NM WIDE Ultraviolet (UV) light is an electromagnetic radiation.STRAND OF DNA 2.5 +/- NM WIDE A strand of human DNA is 2.5 nanometers in diameter. There are 25,400,000 nanometers in one inch.THE MATERIAL The Jerusalem Nano Bible is made from silicon ‘wafer’, a thin slice of semiconductor material, derived from sand, typically used in precision printing of circuit boards for electronics.NOT A DEVICE The Jerusalem Nano Bible is not an electronic device or connected to the internet. We re-purposed the printing technology to reproduce the bible onto a tiny 5x5 mm wafer surface.DIGITAL TEXT FILE With a special program, the Nano Scientist translates the bible text file in whole, into an actual image or photograph, which will ultimately be projected onto the smallest of surfaces.BIBLE SURFACE The text is covered with a protective layer made from 500 nm Sin and Silicon OxiNitride. The letters are nano printed or engraved in 450 nm thick aluminum.1 • MANUFACTURING Starting with a silicon wafer, 200 mm in diameter and 0.7 mm thick, a deposit of silicon oxide and aluminum are layered onto the substrate and coated with a photosensitive material or photoresist.2 • LITHOGRAPHY The text is printed on a transparent mask, which is x4 larger than the final print on Silicon. The mask image is exposed onto the photoresist surface while reduced to the final size for final output.3 • DEVELOP / ETCH Aluminum is etched through the photoresist layer, copying the pattern onto the aluminum layer. Then photoresist material is removed. Think of it as reverse puzzle pieces.4 • PROTECTIVE LAYER A protective layer of SiN and Silicon Oxide is deposited onto the wafer and then back grinded from 0.7 mm to 0.4 mm. After the Nano Bibles are cut to the final dimensions.